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Kingdom Protista – Download Notes of Zoology | Biology Class 11

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Kingdom ProtistaBiology | Zoology
Reference Notes on Kingdom Protista
For: Science Class 11

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Kingdom Protista | General characters

  • All the organisms are unicellular and microscopic.
  • Mostly they are aquatic and some are terrestrial
  • They may be free-living, parasitic, saprophytic or symbiotic
  • They are holozoic or holophytic or saprozoic
  • Their reproduction takes place by sexual and asexual method
  • They can move with their locomotory organ like pseudopodia, cilia and flagella

Paramecium is found in fresh water. It is widely distributed and commonly found animal. Its body is unicellular. The shape of the cell is like a sole of slipper. Therefore, it is called slipper animalcule.

Pellicle: It is outer most covering. It is thin and elastic. It is made up of a kind of gelatinous substance. The surface of pellicle has hexagonal structure and each hexagonal structure consists of cilia outer side and trichocyst inner side. Its function is to provide shape to the cell and to give elasticity to the cell.

Cilia: The outer layer is covered with fine hair like structure called cilia. The cilia arise from the cytoplasm and penetrate pellicle. The base of the cilia has nodule called kinetosome. The cilia help in locomotion and capture food.

Trichocyst: The trichocysts are spindle shaped structure, which arrange at right angle towards inner side of pellicle. They are considered as defense organs. They are discharged out as needle like structures when the paramecium is stimulated.

Oral groove: The oral groove is oblique aperture which runs backward and situated at 2/3rd part of the body. Base of oral groove is called vestibule and is conical shaped. The vestibule connects an opening called cytostome. The cytostome opens into gullet. It is tube like structures and called as cytopharynx. The gullet terminates in food vacuole.

Cytopyge: There is small opening called cytoproct or cytopyge is present behind oral groove. It acts as anus of the paramecium through which undigested matters from the cell is passed out.

Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm is differentiated into two parts. The outer part is thin and called ectoplasm, inner part is granular called endoplasm. The ectoplasm consists of trichocysts and base of cilia. Endoplasm consists of cell organelles and cell inclusions.

Nucleus: In the endoplasm, there are two nuclei. One is larger kidney shaped called macronucleus or mega nucleus which helps in vegetative reproduction. There is another is smaller round or spherical nucleus in the cavity of large nucleus called micronucleus, which helps in sexual reproduction.

Contractile Vacuole: There are two contractile vacuoles one at each end. The contractile vacuole consists of 5-10 radial canals, which appear as star like structure. Each radial canal has three parts i.e. ampulla, terminal and injecting canal.

Function of contractile vacuole
It helps in absorption of water from the body and pour into the vacuole. The vacuole contracts time to time to throw out the excess water from the body. It is the organ of osmoregulation.

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Posted By : Hari Prasad Chaudhary | Comment RSS | Category : Class XI, Downloads, HSEB Notes
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